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每日英語跟讀 Ep.K060: 海上城市不再是科幻小說裡的情節
公開日時: 2021-02-26 01:47:00


每日英語跟讀 Ep.K060: Floating Cities, No Longer Science Fiction, Begin to Take Shape



 





It is an idea at once audacious and simplistic, a seeming impossibility that is now technologically within reach: cities floating in international waters — independent, self-sustaining nation-states at sea.



這是個大膽創新又將複雜事物過分簡單化,看似不可能,現在科技卻有望實現的概念:漂浮在公海上的城市—獨立且自給自足的海上民族國家。





Long the stuff of science fiction, “seasteading” has in recent years matured from pure fantasy into something approaching reality, and there are now companies, academics, architects and even a government working together on a prototype by 2020.





「海上家園」向來是科幻小說的題材,近年已從純粹的空想發展為即將成真的事物,目前有企業、學者、建築師和甚至一個政府通力合作,要在2020年前建立原型。





At the center of the effort is the Seasteading Institute, a nonprofit organization based in San Francisco. Founded in 2008, the group has spent about a decade trying to convince the public that seasteading is not an entirely crazy idea.





在這場努力中位居關鍵的是海洋家園研究所,這是總部設在美國舊金山的非營利組織,創立於2008年,已經花了十年左右說服大眾,住在海上不是全然瘋狂的主意。





That has not always been easy. At times, the story of the seasteading movement seems to lapse into self parody. Burning Man gatherings in the Nevada desert are an inspiration, while references to the Kevin Costner film “Waterworld” are inevitable. The project is being partially funded by an initial coin offering, a new concept sweeping Silicon Valley and Wall Street in which money can be raised by creating and selling virtual currency.





這一路可並不平順。有時,提倡海上家園的故事似乎陷入自我搞笑。美國內華達州沙漠的「火人祭」聚會是個啟發,而與凱文科斯納主演的電影「水世界」的聯結也無以避免。計畫的資金部分來自「首次代幣發行」,這是橫掃矽谷和華爾街的新概念:錢能藉由創造和販售虛擬貨幣而募得。





And yet in 2017, with sea levels rising because of climate change and established political orders around the world teetering under the strains of populism, seasteading can seem not just practical, but downright appealing.





不過在2017年,當海平面因氣候變遷而上升,世界各地老牌的政治體系都在民粹壓力下搖搖欲墜時,住在海上看來就不僅可行,且真能吸引人。




Earlier this year, the government of French Polynesia agreed to let the Seasteading Institute begin testing in its waters. Construction could begin soon, and the first floating buildings — the nucleus of a city — might be inhabitable in just a few years.



今年稍早,法屬玻里尼西亞政府同意讓海洋家園研究所開始在轄下水域試驗。建築工程可能很快就會展開,第一批海上建物,也就是城市核心,也許在幾年內就能入住。




“If you could have a floating city, it would essentially be a startup country,” said Joe Quirk, president of the Seasteading Institute. “We can create a huge diversity of governments for a huge diversity of people.”





海上家園研究所所長奎爾克說:「如果你有一座海上城市,它將形同一個新創國家,我們可為各式各樣的人創造各式各樣的政府。」





The term seasteading has been around since at least 1981, when avid sailor Ken Neumeyer wrote a book, “Sailing the Farm,” that discussed living sustainably aboard a sailboat. Two decades later, the idea attracted the attention of Patri Friedman, grandson of economist Milton Friedman, who seized on the notion.





海上家園一詞至少早自1981年即已出現,當時酷愛航海的水手諾伊邁爾寫了一本書「駕著海上農場出航」,討論持久住在帆船上的生活。20年後,經濟學家米爾頓.傅利曼的孫子派特瑞.傅利曼受到這個點子吸引,並予以發揚光大。





Friedman, a freethinker who had founded “intentional communities” while in college, was living in Silicon Valley at the time and was inspired to think big. So in 2008 he quit his job at Google and co-founded the Seasteading Institute with seed funding from Peter Thiel, the libertarian billionaire. In a 2009 essay, Thiel described seasteading as a long shot, but one worth taking. “Between cyberspace and outer space lies the possibility of settling the oceans,” he wrote.





傅利曼是自由思想家,讀大學時創辦「理念型社區」,而得知這個點子時他住在矽谷,受到鼓勵要勇於逐夢。所以他在2008年辭去Google的工作,在自由派億萬富豪泰爾的種子基金挹注下,與人合創海洋家園研究所。泰爾在2009年撰文說,海上家園成功希望不大,但值得一試,「在網路和外太空之間,存在著住在海上的可能性」。





Source article: https://paper.udn.com/udnpaper/POH0067/321267/web/




 




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每日英語跟讀 Ep.K059: About Australia - 澳洲更改國歌與龍蝦殼型列印
公開日時: 2021-02-25 01:04:00


每日英語跟讀 Ep.K059: About Australia - Australia changes national anthem to reflect Indigenous history



 





The anthem, "Advance Australia Fair," has been tweaked to recognize the country’s Indigenous history and communities, Prime Minister Scott Morrison announced.





澳洲總理莫里森宣布,國歌「前進澳洲美之國」已經被些微修正,承認該國原住民歷史與社群。





The first line, "Australians all let us rejoice, for we are young and free," will now end with "one and free."





第一句「澳洲人,讓我們歡笑吧,因為我們年輕又自由」,將改為以「團結又自由」結束。





The anthem has become controversial in recent years, amid growing conversation about Indigenous representation, systemic inequality, and racial injustice. In particular, many have pushed back against the phrase "for we are young and free", a nod to when Britain’s First Fleet landed in Australia in 1788.





這首國歌在近幾年變得備受爭議,在愈來愈多關於原住民形象、系統性不平等,與種族不正義的對話中。許多人尤其反對「因為我們年輕又自由」這句(歌詞),贊同英國第一艦隊1788年登陸澳洲的歷史。





The government has a history of changing the song to be more inclusive - when Peter Dodds McCormick’s original 1878 composition was declared the official national anthem in 1984, replacing "God Save the Queen," two instances of "sons" were switched with gender-neutral phrasing.





政府過去也曾改動這首歌,以更具包容性。當彼得.多滋.麥考米克1878年譜寫的原曲,於1984年取代「天佑女王」被定為國歌時。曾將歌詞兩處的「兒子」改為性別中立的詞語。




 




Next Article




 




Lobster shell patterns make concrete stronger 龍蝦殼圖案讓混凝土更堅固


Inspired by the natural, twisting patterns of a lobster shell, Australian researchers say they have found a way, using 3D printing technology, to improve the strength of concrete for use in complex architecture.





受到龍蝦殼自然、扭曲的圖案啟發,澳洲研究人員說,他們發現了一個方法,使用3D列印技術來改進用於構造複雜的建築混凝土強度。





Reinforced with steel fibres, the concrete becomes more durable when set in a pattern that copies a lobster shell, according to a new study from Melbourne’s RMIT University.





根據墨爾本皇家理工大學一項新研究,用鋼纖增強的混凝土,製成仿龍蝦殼的圖案時,變得更耐用。





Rather than use a mould, the process involves depositing layers of concrete one on top of the other, directed from a computer program using 3D printing technology.





這個過程不用模具,而是在使用3D列印技術的電腦程式指導之下,把混凝土一層層沉積在上面。





“The lobster shell is always something that still amazes me by its very interesting shapes and architectures, and especially (as) the lobster shell is really amazingly very stiff,” lead researcher Jonathan Tran told Reuters.





首席研究員喬納森.特蘭告訴路透,「龍蝦殼一直以其非常有趣的形狀與架構讓我驚豔,特別是龍蝦殼真的硬到讓人訝異。」





Source article: https://features.ltn.com.tw/english/article/paper/1429554 ; https://features.ltn.com.tw/english/article/paper/1428933




 




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每日英語跟讀 Ep.K058: About SKorea - 晶片短缺衝擊南韓車商與拜登重建盟邦關係
公開日時: 2021-02-24 01:36:00


每日英語跟讀 Ep.K058: About SKorea - Chip shortage hitting Korean carmakers



 





The continued automotive semiconductor shortage is hitting Korean carmakers, with General Motors Korea announcing plans to halve its vehicle production at its plant here.





隨著「韓國通用汽車」宣布旗下車廠減半其汽車產量的計畫,車用半導體持續短缺,正衝擊南韓車商。





GMK said Thursday it decided to halve production at its Bupyeong 2 plant for February. The plant has a daily production capacity of 480 vehicles ― the cut will lead it to monthly production of around 5,000.





韓國通用汽車週四決定其(仁川)「富平2廠」的產量減半。該廠每日產能480輛─此一減產將致使其每月產量為約5000輛。





Analysts say it is tough to say exactly how long the automotive chip shortage could last, while UBS investment bank said it was expecting the supply-demand mismatch will improve sometime in the third quarter.





分析師說,很難講車用晶片荒究竟可能會延續多久。瑞銀投資銀行則表示,其預計供需失衡的情況將在第三季某個時刻得到改善。



 





Next Article



 





Biden’s focus on rebuilding allies to impact Korea-US relations 拜登聚焦重建與盟邦關係 將影響韓美關係





President Joe Biden’s attention to "repairing alliances" has raised hopes that things between South Korea and U.S. will be different under the new U.S. leader.





(美國)總統拜登關注「修補同盟」,已提高韓美間的情況將在這位美國新領袖下有所不同的希望。





"This will involve reaching an agreement on Special Measures Agreement negotiations fairly quickly, taking South Korea’s views on North Korea into consideration even if Seoul’s and Washington’s positions are different, cooperation in multilateral issues such as climate change or trade, and trying to get the Moon Jae-in government on board his administration’s position on China," Ramon Pacheco Pardo, who serves as associate professor of international relations at King’s College London.





倫敦國王學院國際關係副教授拉蒙‧巴奇可‧帕爾多說,「這將包括很快會就(分攤駐韓美軍經費的)『特別措施協定』達成協議。即使首爾與華府的立場不同,仍將南韓對北韓的看法納入考量。在氣候變遷或貿易之類的多邊議題上合作。還有試著使(南韓總統)文在寅政府加入拜登政府對中國的立場」。





"I would also expect Biden to support South Korea becoming part of an expanded G7 or similar forum, and supporting a more vocal Seoul in international relations," added Pardo.





帕爾多還說,「我也預料拜登將支持南韓躋身一個擴大的『七大工業國』或類似論壇的成員,並支持一個在國際關係上更勇於發聲的首爾」。





Source article: https://features.ltn.com.tw/english/article/paper/1430611 ; https://features.ltn.com.tw/english/article/paper/1422097




 



 




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每日英語跟讀 Ep.K057: 台積電掌世界半導體命脈
公開日時: 2021-02-23 01:32:00


每日英語跟讀 Ep.K057: The world is dependent on Taiwan for semiconductors



 





As China pushes the world to avoid official dealings with Taiwan, leaders across the globe are realizing just how dependent they have become on the island democracy.





中國迫使世界斷絕與台灣的正式往來,此時全球的領導人卻了解到,他們對這民主島國的依賴程度已如此之深。





Taiwan is being courted for its capacity to make leading-edge computer chips. That is mostly down to Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co (TSMC), the world’s largest foundry and go-to producer of chips for Apple Inc smartphones, artificial intelligence and high-performance computing.





台灣以其製造先進電腦晶片的能力而備受青睞。這主要歸功於台灣積體電路製造公司﹝簡稱台積電﹞。台積電是全球最大的晶圓代工廠,也是蘋果公司智慧型手機、人工智慧及高效能運算晶片的首選製造商。





Taiwan’s role in the world economy largely existed below the radar until it came to recent prominence as the auto industry suffered shortfalls in chips used for everything from parking sensors to reducing emissions. With carmakers including Germany’s Volkswagen AG, Ford Motor Co of the US and Japan’s Toyota Motor Corp forced to halt production and idle plants, Taiwan’s importance has suddenly become too big to ignore.





台灣在世界經濟中的角色大多不為人所注意,直到最近由於汽車工業的晶片短缺(由倒車雷達至減少排放等皆須用到晶片),台灣才成為全世界眾所矚目之地。包括德國福斯汽車、美國福特汽車及日本豐田汽車在內的汽車製造商被迫停止生產、將工廠閒置,台灣的重要性因此也突然變得不可忽視。





That is not to say Taiwan is the only player in the semiconductor supply chain. The US still holds dominant positions, notably in chip design and electronic software tools; ASML Holding NV of the Netherlands has a monopoly on the machines needed to fabricate the best chips; Japan is a key supplier of equipment, chemicals and wafers.





這並不是說台灣是半導體供應鏈中的唯一角色。美國仍居主導地位,特別是在晶片設計和電子軟體工具方面;製造最佳晶片所需之機器是由荷蘭的艾司摩爾所壟斷;日本則是設備、化學品和晶圓的主要供應國。





However, as the emphasis shifts to ever smaller, more powerful chips that require less energy, TSMC is increasingly in a field of its own. It has also helped Taiwan form a comprehensive ecosystem around it: ASE Technology Holding is the world’s top chip assembler, while MediaTek has become the largest smartphone chipset vendor.





但是,隨著重點轉移到體積更小、功能更強大且用電更少的晶片上,台積電便愈發自成體系。台積電也幫助台灣建構了一個全面的生態系統,以台積電為中心:日月光是世界頂尖的晶片封測廠,而聯發科技已成為智慧型手機晶片組最大的供應商。





A big worry is that TSMC’s chip factories could become collateral damage if China were to make good on threats to invade Taiwan if it moves toward independence.





一大隱憂是,若台灣邁向獨立、中國果真入侵台灣,則台積電晶片廠恐受牽連,成為附帶損害。





“Taiwan is the center of gravity of Chinese security policy,” said Mathieu Duchatel, director of the Asia program at the Institut Montaigne in Paris. Preserving the world’s most advanced fabs “is in the interests of everyone.”





「台灣是中國安全政策的重中之重」,巴黎蒙田研究所亞洲計畫主任杜懋之表示;保護世界上最先進的晶圓廠「符合所有人的利益」。





Source article: https://www.taipeitimes.com/News/lang/archives/2021/02/01/2003751534




 



 




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每日英語跟讀 Ep.K056: 加州帶頭拚氫經濟
公開日時: 2021-02-22 01:28:00


每日英語跟讀 Ep.K056: California Is Trying to Jump-Start the Hydrogen Economy





 



Since President George W. Bush fueled a minivan with hydrogen 15 years ago, the promise of cars and trucks powered by the fuel has come up mostly empty.





15年前,時任美國總統的小布希為一輛廂型休旅車加上氫燃料,發展氫能小客車和貨車的美好期盼迄今卻大抵落空。





That hydrogen pump, in Washington, closed long ago. But in California, the beginnings of a hydrogen economy may finally be dawning after many fits and starts.





華府的那座加氫站早已停用,然而在加州,氫經濟在幾經周折之後,可能真的要起步了。





Dozens of hydrogen buses are lumbering down city streets, while more and larger fueling stations are appearing from San Diego to San Francisco, financed by the state and the federal government. With the costs of producing and shipping hydrogen coming down, California is setting ambitious goals to phase out vehicles that run on fossil fuels in favor of batteries and hydrogen.





在州政府和聯邦出資之下,從聖地牙哥到舊金山,數十輛氫動力公車緩緩行駛於城市街道,更多且更大的加氫站也一一出現。由於氫製造和運輸的成本下降,加州立定遠大目標,要逐步淘汰化石燃料車,轉向電動車和氫能車。





Some energy executives said they expect investment in hydrogen to accelerate under President-elect Joe Biden, who made climate change a big part of his campaign and proposed a $2 trillion plan to tackle the problem.





一些能源業高管預期,對氫能的投資會在總統當選人拜登上台後加速成長。拜登以遏制氣候變遷為重要政見,並提出一項2兆美元的因應計畫。





A recent McKinsey & Co. study estimated that the hydrogen economy could generate $140 billion in annual revenue by 2030 and support 700,000 jobs. The study projected that hydrogen could meet 14% of total American energy demand by 2050.





管理顧問公司麥肯錫最近在一份研究中估計,到2030年時,氫經濟每年能創造1400億美元營收,支撐70萬個工作機會。這份研究預測,到2050年,氫將能滿足全美14%的能源需求。





The use of hydrogen, the lightest and most abundant substance in the universe, is still in its infancy, and California is determined to be its cradle in the United States.The state now has roughly 40 fueling stations, with dozens more under construction. While those numbers are tiny compared with the 10,000 gasoline stations across the state, officials have high hopes.





氫是宇宙中最輕且最豐富的物質,人類利用氫能還在初始階段,而加州決心成為美國氫能利用的搖籃。加州目前約有40個加氫站,還有數十個在興建中。雖然加氫站數量與全加州一萬個加油站相比微不足道,但官員仍滿懷希望。





With about 7,500 hydrogen vehicles on the road, an aggressive state program of incentives and subsidies from cap-and-trade dollars envisions 50,000 hydrogen light-duty vehicles by mid-decade and a network of 1,000 hydrogen stations by 2030.





目前加州約有7500輛氫能車上路,州政府積極利用取自「總量管制與排放交易」的財源來進行補貼和獎勵,希望達到2025年左右有5萬輛輕型氫能車上路,2030年有1000個加氫站的目標。





Hydrogen-powered vehicles are similar to electric cars. But unlike electric cars, which have large batteries, these cars have hydrogen tanks and fuel cells that turn the gas into electricity. The cars refuel and accelerate quickly, and they can go for several hundred miles on a full tank. They emit only water vapor, which makes them appealing to California cities that are trying to reduce pollution and greenhouse gas emissions.





氫能車類似電動車,不同的是,電動車的電池很大,氫能車則有氫氣儲存槽和把氫氣轉換成電力的燃料電池。氫能車補充燃料和加速都很快,氫氣槽加滿後能跑幾百哩。氫能車只會釋出蒸氣,對於努力減少汙染和溫室氣體排放量的加州很有吸引力。





“Almost any objective analysis for getting to zero emissions includes hydrogen,” said Jack Brouwer, director of the National Fuel Cell Research Center at the University of California, Irvine.





爾灣加州大學國家燃料電池研究中心主任傑克‧布勞爾說:「幾乎所有關於如何達到零排放的客觀分析都會提到氫。」





Source article: https://udn.com/news/story/6904/5106534





 



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回顧星期天LBS - 非洲時事趣聞 All about Africa
公開日時: 2021-02-21 01:08:00


Hello 通勤家族,歡迎收聽Look Back Sunday回顧星期天,在這個節目John老師會彙整過去不同國家與主題的熱門跟讀文章,讓你可以在十五分鐘內吸收最精華的世界時事趣聞!我們這週聽聽非洲的趣聞,Let's get right to it!



 





Topic: Are African Artifacts Safer in Europe? 非洲文物在歐洲更安全?



 





Is Africa’s cultural heritage better off in Europe or in Africa?非洲的文化遺產存放在歐洲或非洲,何者比較好呢?



 





That is the question at the heart of a yearslong debate that has gripped museums in Europe, where many officials say they support the idea of repatriating artifacts, but worry that African museums cannot compare to state-of-the-art facilities in Britain, France or Germany.這正是歐洲博物館界討論多年的問題的核心,許多歐洲博物館的管理階層表示,他們贊成應把文物送回非洲的想法,卻又擔心非洲各地博物館不具備英、法或德國那些先進博物館的的條件。



 





That debate has been given new life in recent months after an investigation by the Süddeutsche Zeitung newspaper found that many of the artifacts that will be on display in the Humboldt Forum, a huge new museum under construction in a rebuilt Berlin palace, had for years been stored in less-than-ideal conditions. The report featured searing depictions of flooded storage rooms and depots choked with toxic dust.最近幾個月,這場討論再度熱絡起來,因為南德意志報調查後發現,預定在「洪堡論壇」展出的文物之中,許多已存放在不盡理想的環境下多年。洪堡論壇是興建中規模宏大的新博物館,將位在柏林一座重建的宮殿內。這篇報導對那些文物的存放室淹水,庫房覆滿有毒灰塵,作了特別尖刻地描述。



 





The Humboldt Forum will bring together the collections of several existing museums in the city under one roof, but reports in German news media have focused on the storage facilities of the Ethnological Museum of Berlin, which will be the Forum’s largest single contributor.洪堡論壇將把柏林幾座現有博物館的藏品集中在一起,不過德國新聞媒體的報導著重在柏林民族學博物館的庫房。這座博物館將是洪堡論壇展品的最大提供者。



 





Officials at the museum, which closed to the public in 2017 to prepare for the move to its new home, have responded with what observers call an unusual degree of openness.民族學博物館2017年起停止對外開放,好準備搬新家。館方回應外界質疑的態度十分開放透明,開放程度之高觀察家以異乎尋常形容。



 





They have denied some of the reports, in particular the claim of flooded storerooms, but said their depots were beset with problems common to museums across Germany. Those included outdated facilities, a lack of staff members, and a sense of disarray that dates to moments of crisis in German history.館方否認報導中的某些部分,尤其是庫房淹水,不過他們說,倉庫發生的問題在德國各地博物館都很常見,包括設施陳舊、人手不足和擺放方式雜亂,這些問題從德國歷史上那些動盪時期以來就一直存在。



 





Despite all that, they steadfastly rejected that those conditions might call into question their stewardship of the artifacts, many of which were collected during the era of European imperialism.雖然倉庫有這些問題,但館方堅決否認這些問題意味著管理不善。倉庫內許多文物是在歐洲帝國主義時期收集而來。



 





Sindika Dokolo, a Congolese art collector who runs a foundation that has organized the return of artifacts to Congo and Angola, said it was true that “a whole generation” of museum professionals, like curators and conservationists, needed to be trained “in most of the African countries.” But while that new generation was being trained, he said, it is European museums’ responsibility to make sure African audiences had access to the artifacts in their possession.剛果藝品收藏家多克洛管理一個基金會,在這個基金會安排下已有一些文物送回剛果和安哥拉。多克洛說,「多數非洲國家」的確有必要訓練「一整個世代的」博物館專業人員,如策展人和文物修復師。不過他說,在非洲訓練這個新世代的同時,歐洲博物館有責任確保非洲的文物愛好者能看到歐洲握有的非洲文物。



 





It is up to them to create the conditions that would let African artifacts "play their role where they need to be right now, in Africa," he added.多克洛說,歐洲博物館有責任創造條件,讓非洲文物「在非洲當下需要的地方發揮作用」。





Source article: https://paper.udn.com/udnpaper/POH0067/345221/web/




 




Next Article




 




Topic: Neanderthal genes found for first time in African populations



 





African populations have been revealed to share Neanderthal ancestry for the first time, in findings that add a new twist to the tale of ancient humans and our closest known relatives.非洲的人類族群首度被科學家揭露帶有尼安德塔人的血統。這項發現為古代人類和尼安德塔人──與我們血緣最相近的親戚物種──之間的故事,帶來新的轉折。



 





Previously it was believed that only non-African populations carried Neanderthal genes due to interbreeding that took place after a major human migration out of Africa and across the globe about 60,000 years ago. The latest findings suggest human and Neanderthal lineages are more closely intertwined than once thought and point to far earlier interbreeding events, about 200,000 years ago.前,學界普遍認為只有非洲以外的族群帶有尼安德塔人的基因,這是因為人類大約在六萬年前發生過一次大型的「源出非洲」遷徙,散播到全球各地,而後與尼安德塔人異種交配。最新的研究結果顯示,人類和尼安德塔人的譜系比科學家先前認為的還要緊密相繫,並且指向更早以前──大約在二十萬年前──就出現過異種交配。



 





“Our results show this history was much more interesting and there were many waves of dispersal out of Africa, some of which led to admixture between modern humans and Neanderthals that we see in the genomes of all living individuals today,” said Joshua Akey, an evolutionary biologist at Princeton University and senior author of the research.普林斯頓大學的演化生物學家、也是該篇研究的資深作者約書亞‧阿奇表示:「我們研究的結果顯示,這段歷史其實更為有趣。其實歷史上曾經發生過好幾波源出非洲的向外擴散,其中幾次造成現代人類與尼安德塔人混血,也就是我們今日在所有現代人類個體的基因組中所看到的現象。」




 




The study suggests living Europeans and Asians carry about 1 percent Neanderthal DNA, compared with on average 0.3 percent for those of African ancestry. Akey and colleagues believe that this Neanderthal DNA arrived in Africa with ancient Europeans whose ancestors — over many generations — had left Africa, met and mated with Neanderthals and then returned to Africa and mixed with local populations.這份研究指出,相較於祖先來自非洲的現代人,身上平均帶有百分之零點三的尼安德塔DNA,現代歐洲人和亞洲人則帶有百分之一的尼安德塔DNA。阿奇和他的同事認為,這個尼安德塔DNA和古老的歐洲人一起抵達非洲,而這些歐洲人的祖先──在好幾個世代以前──從非洲離開,遇到尼安德塔人,並與他們交配,然後回到非洲,再與當地人口混血。



 





“An important aspect of our study is that it highlights humans, and hominins, were moving in and out of Africa for hundreds of thousands of years and occasionally admixing,” said Akey. “These back-to-Africa migrations, largely from ancestors of contemporary Europeans, carried Neanderthal sequences with them, and through admixture, contributed to the Neanderthal ancestry we detect in African individuals today.”阿奇指出:「我們的研究其中一項重要的層面在於,它點出人類,以及其他古代人類亞族,在數十萬年間不斷地移入移出非洲,並且偶爾發生混血的情形。」他補充說:「這些回到非洲的移民,主要來自於當代歐洲人的祖先,他們身上帶有尼安德塔人的基因序列,並且經由混血,導致我們今日在非洲人身上探測到的尼安德塔血統。」




 




The increasingly fine-grained details of our ancestors’ migration patterns and intimate encounters with other types of human are coming into focus thanks to the advent of sophisticated computational genetics techniques. These statistical methods allow scientists to line up the Neanderthal genome side by side with that of ancient modern humans and DNA from different living populations and figure out whether the different lineages have been steadily diverging or whether there are blips where large chunks of DNA were exchanged at certain time points.多虧了精密電腦計算基因學技術的來臨,關於我們祖先的遷徙模式,以及與其他人種的親密接觸,愈來愈細緻的細節逐漸變得清晰。這些統計學方法讓科學家能夠將尼安德塔人和古現代人的基因組並列,進行對比,也能夠對照今日不同人類族群的DNA,判斷這些相異的譜系是否一直持續產生分歧,又或者是否有跡象顯示某些時間點曾經出現大塊的DNA交換。



 





The latest comparison highlights previously unnoticed ancient human genes in the Neanderthal genome, apparently acquired from interbreeding events dating to about 200,000 years ago. This suggests an early group of humans travelled from Africa to Europe or Asia, where they encountered Neanderthal populations and left a faint imprint on their genome that could still be detected more than 100,000 years later.最新的基因組對比,凸顯出先前不曾被注意到的古人類基因存在於尼安德塔人的基因組中,明顯來自於距今約二十萬年的雜交事件。這項發現顯示,曾有早期人類族群從非洲前往歐洲或亞洲,在當地遇到尼安德塔人族群,並在後者基因組中留下淺淺的印記,在超過十萬年後的今天仍然可以探測得到。



 





The paper also highlights the relative lack of genetics research in African populations, despite modern humans having first emerged on the continent and despite African populations today being more diverse genetically than the inhabitants of the rest of the world combined. “To more fully understand human genomic variation and human evolutionary history, it is imperative to comprehensively sample individuals from all regions of the world, and Africa remains one of the most understudied regions,” said Akey.該篇論文也點出,儘管現代人類最初發源於非洲大陸,而且今日非洲人類族群的遺傳多樣性遠高於世界其他地區居民的總和,目前學界對於當地族群的基因研究仍顯得相對缺乏。阿奇指出:「如果要更全盤了解人類基因組的變異,以及人類演化的歷史,廣泛對世界各地區的人類個體進行採樣是絕對必要的,而非洲目前仍然是研究最為不足的地區之一。」



 





It is not known whether all African populations, some of whose roots stretch into the deep past, share this Neanderthal heritage. KhoeSan (bushmen) and Mbuti (central African pygmy) populations, for instance, appear to have split off from other groups more than 100,000 years ago. The findings are published in the journal Cell.目前仍不清楚是否所有非洲族群──其中有些族群的根源延續自遙遠的過去──共同擁有這項「尼安德塔遺產」。舉例而言,非洲的「科伊桑族」(亦稱布須曼人)以及「姆巴提人」(非洲中部的一支矮黑人),似乎在超過十萬年前就已經和其他人類族群在演化上分道揚鑣了。該篇研究刊登於期刊《細胞》上。




 




Source article: http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/lang/archives/2020/02/16/2003731045/2




 




Next Article




 




Topic: About Africa - Mysterious Mineral from Earth’s Mantle Discovered in South African Diamond



 





A single grain of rock lodged in a diamond contains a never-before-found mineral. And that newfound substance could reveal unusual chemical reactions unfolding in the depths of the mantle, the layer of Earth that lies between the planet’s crust and outer core. The entire mantle is about 1,802 miles (2,900 km) thick.包裹在一塊鑽石內的小晶粒,含有一種此前從未在鑽石內發現的礦物。這項新發現有望揭示地函深處發生的不尋常化學反應,地球地函位在行星地殼與外地核之間。地球地函的總厚度約1802英里(2900公里)。



 





Scientists unearthed the mineral from a volcanic site in South Africa known as the Koffiefontein pipe. Shining diamonds speckle the dark, igneous rock that lines the pipe, and the diamonds themselves contain tiny bits of other minerals from hundreds of miles beneath Earth’s surface. Within one of these sparkling stones, scientists found a dark green, opaque mineral that they estimated was forged about 105 miles (170 kilometers) underground.科學家從南非一處名為「科菲芬丹火山管」的火山區挖出這種礦物。閃閃發亮的鑽石散布在火山管內暗色的火成岩之中,鑽石本身則含有其他來自地表下數百英里的微小礦物。在其中一塊閃亮的石頭內,科學家發現一種暗綠色、不透明的礦物,他們估計這種礦物生成在地底下105英里(170公里)處。



 





Scientists noted that, for a mantle mineral, goldschmidtite has a peculiar chemical composition.科學家指出,對地函礦物而言,「針銀碲金礦」具有獨特的化學組成。




 




Next Article:




 




Topic: Kenyans rush to swap banknotes as cash ban looms 鈔票禁令在即,肯亞人搶著換鈔




 




A man walked into a Nairobi car yard and paid for a luxury Mercedes with a mountain of 1,000 shilling ($9 euros) banknotes, desperate to offload cash that would be worthless after September 30.一名男子走進奈洛比市一家汽車展示場,拿出大量1000肯亞先令紙鈔(約9歐元),買下一台豪華賓士轎車,急著將9月30日後就一文不值的現金脫手。




 




With the deadline looming before the Central Bank of Kenya bans all old edition 1,000 shilling notes, big fish with their fortunes stashed in cash are under pressure.隨著肯亞中央銀行禁止所有舊版千元先令流通的日期逼近,握有大筆現金的大人物備感壓力。




 




A new print of the 1,000 shilling banknote, the largest denomination, was rolled out in June. The operation is aimed at flushing out dirty money being hoarded by tax evaders, crooked businessmen and criminal groups. The central bank in June said there were roughly 218 million 1,000 shilling notes in circulation.最大面額1000先令的新版紙鈔在六月推出,這項行動旨在迫使逃稅者、奸商和犯罪集團,釋出積存的來歷不明財富。肯亞央行六月表示,約有2.18億張千元先令在市面流通。



 





People are getting creative, devising schemes to quickly unload small amounts of their cash. For example, a liquor shop owner gets 500,000 shillings every day to bank together with his daily sales, as a deal with a wealthy guy, and get between five and 10 percent in return.人們開始想方設法,擬定可以迅速脫手小額現金的方法。例如,一名酒商和有錢人達成協議,每天幫對方將50萬先令,連同自家營業額存進銀行,藉此收取5%到10%的回饋。





Source article: https://features.ltn.com.tw/english/article/paper/1322040 ; https://features.ltn.com.tw/english/article/paper/1321332




 



 




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精選詞彙播客 Vocab Ep.094: Just what is the perfect gift 什麼才是最完美的禮物?
公開日時: 2021-02-20 00:22:14

Summary:




Every year just before the gift giving season, the question of the perfect gift arises. In some years, it could be easy to find that most sought-after gift, for other years, it could become an ordeal. How should we go about finding the “perfect gift”? Social scientists advise shoppers to not try that hard. Although shoppers strive for that surprise when the gift is opened, scientists found that recipients only think about “Will I get any use out of this?”. Next finding scientists found is that regifting does not actually offend people. Last, if you know the recipients asked for something, just buy them that as a gift.





原跟讀文章: https://www.15mins.today/blog/ep-1011-the-perfect-gift-it-s-the-one-they-asked-for




 




Vocabulary and Sample Sentences:




 




Extravagant adj. – lacking restraint in using money / costing too much money



  • People do not need extravagant gifts for their birthday.


  • My cousin held an extravagant wedding in Hawaii.





Insist v. – demand something forcefully



  • Social scientists say you don’t have to insist on buying different gifts for different people.


  • My parents have always insisted on buying new clothes before Chinese New Year.





Offend v. – to cause upset



  • I would not get offended if I found my friend gave a regifted gift.


  • If we don’t watch what we say, we might just offend some people without knowing.




 




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每日英語跟讀 Ep.K055: 加拿大龜速處理原住民土地
公開日時: 2021-02-19 01:06:00

每日英語跟讀 Ep.K055: In Canada, Unraveling Centuries of Indigenous Land Claims



 



Whenever Prime Minister Justin Trudeau or his Cabinet ministers speak in certain parts of Ontario or Quebec, they begin by acknowledging they are on “unceded Algonquin territory.”



每當總理賈斯汀.杜魯多或他的內閣部長在安大略或魁北克省的特定地方發表演說時,都會以承認他們是站在「未讓渡的阿岡昆領土上」開場。



That recognition is just one of the ways Trudeau’s government has been trying to signal a top priority: righting the wrongs Canada has done to indigenous people, especially over land that aboriginals say was taken from them unjustly.



如此承認只是杜魯多政府試圖表明其第一優先要務的途徑之一,這要務則是導正加拿大對原住民所做的錯事,特別是針對原住民聲稱被以不公平方式奪走的土地。



But finding common ground on this issue has proved to be one of Trudeau’s most difficult policy initiatives, and critics say efforts to resolve the land disputes have bogged down. But both sides agree on the importance of sorting out the claims.



在這議題上尋求共識已證明是杜魯多最棘手的政策舉措之一,且批評者指出,解決土地紛爭的努力已陷入困境。不過,雙方都認同解決土地聲索問題的重要性。



“The process of negotiating land claims should be an absolute pillar of reconciliation,” said Ken Coates, a historian at the University of Saskatchewan who studies treaties and is a consultant to indigenous groups. “This is our chance to get it right and if we don’t — boy, when will we get the chance again?”



薩斯喀徹溫大學歷史學家肯恩.柯茨對條約有深入研究且是原住民團體的顧問,他說:「談判土地聲索的過程應該成為雙方和解的絕對支柱。這是我們導正錯誤的機會,若不這樣做,天哪,不知何時還有機會? 」



Of the many issues dividing Canada’s federal and provincial governments from its indigenous people, land claims are among the most symbolically important and economically consequential, often involving vast amounts of territory.



在造成加拿大聯邦政府、省級政府與原住民間隔閡的諸多問題中 ,土地聲索是最具象徵意義與經濟重要性者之一,經常事關極大量的領土。



Some claims involve hundreds of millions of dollars, and tribes are often interested in controlling the land at issue, by, for example, having a say over logging, oil exploration and mining.



有些土地聲索涉及數億美元,部落往往對擁有這些爭議土地的控制權感興趣,例如在伐木、探油和開礦上享有發言權。



One claim by various Algonquin groups involves the 8.9 million acres of the Ottawa watershed — which includes Canada’s Parliament buildings and Supreme Court. The government thought it had settled that claim in principle a year ago, but it has ended up in litigation anyway.



各阿岡昆族群共同提出的聲索之一,是渥太華流域的890萬英畝土地,其上有加拿大國會大廈和最高法院。 政府認為1年前原則上已解決了這項聲索,不過到頭來還是成了對簿公堂。



The claims are legally thorny, often requiring historians, archaeologists, geographers and geologists to give evidence sometimes stretching back before recorded history to support, or challenge, them.



這些聲索在法律上相當棘手,經常需要歷史學家、考古學家、地理學家和地質學家提供證據,有時還必須回溯到有文字可考歷史之前,以支撐或挑戰這些聲索。



In some regions, land may have been occupied by different indigenous groups at different times, even changing hands after battles that were unrecorded. These groups may all assert rights, and claims can overlap.



在部分地區,土地可能被不同的原住民族群在不同的時間占據過,甚至曾在戰爭後易手而沒有留下紀錄。這些族群可能都提出主權聲索,而且可能彼此重疊。



Then there is the problem of treaties. Some indigenous groups, like the Algonquins, never signed treaties giving up their land. The government says it is talking with about 140 indigenous groups in that situation.



接著還有條約問題。一些原住民族群如阿岡昆人,從未簽署過放棄他們土地的條約。 政府表示他們正與處於這種狀況下的約140個原住民族群進行談判。



Others did sign treaties, and a government tribunal that deals with treaty disputes has 72 cases and is so overwhelmed that it cannot estimate how long it will take to resolve them.



其他族群確實簽署了條約,處理條約爭端的1個政府法庭手上有72個案件,案件多到不堪負荷,難以估計要多久才能解決。



The result is that settlement negotiations occur at a frustratingly slow pace.



結果則是,和解談判是以令人沮喪的龜速進行。



Source article: https://paper.udn.com/udnpaper/POH0067/320990/web/



 



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每日英語跟讀 Ep.K054: 越南祭祖有十二種乾果蜜餞
公開日時: 2021-02-18 01:05:00

每日英語跟讀 Ep.K054: Vietnamese and Taiwanese Lunar New Year Customs compared at Hanoi event



 



On Jan. 16, the Taiwan Tourism Bureau’s office in Ho Chi Minh City teamed up with some Vietnamese business operators to host a cultural exchange on the theme of Vietnamese and Taiwanese Lunar New Year customs. The COVID-19 pandemic has made it difficult for people to travel back and forth between Vietnam and Taiwan, so the day’s activities attracted owners and managers of many Taiwanese businesses operating in Vietnam to go and get an early taste of the Lunar New Year.



台灣觀光局駐胡志明市辦事處一月十六日和越南業者共同舉辦越台年俗文化交流。受武漢肺炎(新冠病毒,COVID-19)疫情衝擊,越台旅客往來不易,這次活動因而吸引許多在越台商、幹部前來提早感受年味。



Vietnamese and Taiwanese alike worship their ancestors and sit down for New Year’s Eve meals on Lunar New Year’s Eve, but some of the details are a little different. For example, when celebrating the New Year, Vietnamese people of all ages eat traditional square leaf-wrapped rice dumplings whose stuffing mainly consists of glutinous rice, pork and mung beans. Once prepared, the dumplings are boiled for more than 10 hours.



越南與台灣兩地民眾除夕都會祭祖、吃年夜飯,但細節表現略有不同。例如越南人過年時不分老少會吃傳統方形粽,內餡主要有糯米、豬肉、綠豆,之後再用水煮十小時以上。



When worshiping their ancestors at Lunar New Year, Vietnamese people traditionally display some peach blossoms and prepare a five-fruit tray symbolizing yin and yang and the five elements. They also choose 12 kinds of dried and candied fruit, representing the months of the year, and place them in a candy bowl. The variously flavored dried and candied fruits represent the sour, sweet, bitter and spicy flavors of human life. The Vietnamese present these things along with the already-cooked square dumplings as offerings to their ancestors while praying for everything to go smoothly in the coming year.



越南人過年祭祖時按傳統會擺上桃花,並準備象徵陰陽五行的五果盆,再挑出十二種代表各月分的乾果、蜜餞放在糖果盤裡,滋味不一的乾果與蜜餞寓意生活中的酸甜苦辣,並連同煮好的方形粽一起供奉祖先,祈求新年萬事亨通。



Chou Hsin-yi, director of the Tourism Bureau’s Ho Chi Minh City office, observed that Vietnam and Taiwan have many things in common culturally, and they both celebrate the lunar calendar New Year, which is also known as Spring Festival. In the past, Spring Festival was one of the busiest times for Vietnamese travelers to visit Taiwan, and that is why the bureau chose this moment to invite Vietnamese businesspeople to demonstrate the differences and similarities between Lunar New Year customs in the two countries.



觀光局駐胡志明市辦事處主任周欣毅觀察,越台在文化上有許多類似的地方,一樣都過農曆年。以往春節是越南旅客赴台旺季之一,選這個時間點邀請越南業者介紹兩地年俗的異同。



The pandemic has led to general tourist traffic between Vietnam and Taiwan being cut off. To make sure that Vietnamese travelers would not forget about Taiwan during this time of sickness, Chou gave an introduction to the three major tourist events connected with Spring Festival and Lantern Festival in Taiwan, namely the Taiwan Lantern Festival, the Yanshui Beehive Fireworks Festival and the Pingsi Sky Lantern Festival. Chou hopes that the pandemic will be over before too long and the travel business would be restored to its former prosperity.



受疫情影響,越台一般觀光往來中斷,為讓越南旅客在疫情期間也不忘記台灣,周欣毅特別介紹台灣燈會、鹽水蜂炮、平溪天燈這三大台灣春節、元宵觀光盛事,盼疫情早日結束,重拾往日旅遊榮景。



Taiwan’s representative in Vietnam Richard Shih also spoke at the event. He said that there were more than 1.3 million trips between Vietnam and Taiwan in 2019, and more than a million Taiwanese are currently waiting to visit Vietnam. Shih said he hopes that traffic, travel and tourism between Vietnam and Taiwan will soon recover. He said that when flights are officially resumed, annual trips between the two countries are sure to head for the 2 million mark.



台灣駐越南代表石瑞琦致詞時表示,二○一九年越台往來人次超過一百三十萬;現在已有一百萬人次的台灣旅客等著來越南,期盼越台航空交通、旅遊、觀光趕快恢復,正式復航後,每年兩邊旅客往來人次一定會上看二百萬。



Source article: https://www.taipeitimes.com/News/lang/archives/2021/02/02/2003751583



 



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每日英語跟讀 Ep.K053: 經濟不振南美政治王朝崩壞
公開日時: 2021-02-17 01:04:00

每日英語跟讀 Ep.K053: As Economy Lags, Hugo Chavez's Movement Fades in Venezuela



 



As president, Hugo Chavez lavished millions from this country’s oil boom on his home state of Barinas.



But boom has turned to bust, the economy is in shambles and the love affair is over.



在總統任內,烏戈.查維茲把石油價格大好為國家帶來的收入,以超大手筆花在他的家鄉巴里納斯州。



當油價從大好變成大壞,經濟陷入衰敗,戀愛也結束了。



 



Similar sentiments are being heard around the continent, where political dynasties are falling or under intense pressure and where protests and social unrest are on the rise.



In Brazil, legislators have begun an impeachment proceeding against President Dilma Rousseff, as scores of other political leaders have become embroiled in a huge corruption scandal.



 



整個南美洲都能感受到類似的氛圍,政治王朝正在崩解或受到極大壓力,示威抗議和社會動盪方興未艾。



在巴西,國會議員已展開彈劾狄爾瑪.羅塞芙總統的程序,其他幾十位政治領袖也被捲入巨大的貪汙醜聞。



 



In Ecuador, protesters angry at President Rafael Correa have taken to the streets to demonstrate against budget cutbacks necessitated by vanishing oil revenues.



And in Argentina, President Mauricio Macri was inaugurated last month after surging to a surprising win against the candidate of the Peronist party of his predecessor, Cristina Fernandez. His victory ended 12 years during which Fernandez or her late husband, Nestor Kirchner, occupied the presidential palace.



 



在厄瓜多,對拉斐爾.柯利亞總統不滿的抗議群眾走上街頭,表達反對因石油營收減少而必須進行的預算削減。



還有在阿根廷,毛里西奧.馬克里聲勢竄起,意外擊敗前總統克莉絲蒂娜.費南德茲所屬裴洛黨的候選人,於上個月宣誓就職。他的勝利終結了費南德茲和她的已故丈夫內斯托.基希納在總統府的十二年歲月。



 



The strains are being felt most keenly by leftist governments, but analysts say that something other than ideology is at work here. South America saw robust growth in the century’s first decade, thanks to a historic boom in the value of raw materials and other commodities that are sold to the rest of the world.



High prices for oil, natural gas, coal, copper, gold, silver, bauxite, soy beans and other products led to steady growth, a sharp drop in poverty and an expansion of the middle class throughout the region. That growth, in turn, brought political stability, with leaders and parties being repeatedly re-elected.



 



左派政府感受的壓力最大,但分析家說,這其中有意識型態以外的因素在作用。南美在本世紀第一個十年出現強勁的成長,因為賣到世界其他地區的原物料和其他大宗商品行情空前地好。



石油、天然氣、煤、銅、金、銀、礬土、黃豆和其他產品的高價帶來穩定成長,貧窮大幅下降,整個區域的中產階級擴張。成長接著帶來政治穩定,政治領袖和政黨一再當選連任。



 



“There’s been a pretty striking continuity in many countries, in large part thanks to the commodities boom that leaders and parties have been riding,” said Michael Shifter, president of the Inter-American Dialog, a policy analysis group in Washington. “When that’s over, voters look elsewhere and for new leaders, but governing is extremely difficult because they no longer have the resources to meet the high expectations that have been generated during the commodities boom.”



 



華盛頓的政策分析團體「美洲對話」主席麥可.席福特說:「許多國家有很明顯的持續性,相當程度上歸因於政治領袖和政黨搭上了大宗商品行情好的便車。當榮景結束,選民望向別處,尋找新的領袖,但治國極為困難,因為他們不再握有資源來滿足大宗商品上漲時期激起的高期望。」



Source article: https://paper.udn.com/udnpaper/POH0067/291818/web/



 



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每日英語跟讀 Ep.K052: 行車未禮讓行人最高罰鍰六千元
公開日時: 2021-02-16 01:05:00

每日英語跟讀 Ep.K052: Fine for not yielding to pedestrians raised to NT$6,000



 



To improve pedestrian safety, a set of draft amendments to the Road Traffic Management and Penalty Act was passed during a Ministry of Transportation and Communications (MOTC) review board meeting on Jan. 28.



為強化行人安全,交通部一月二十八日部務會報通過「道路交通管理處罰條例」修正案。



Pedestrians have absolute right of way when walking on a crosswalk, but accidents still happen from time to time that involve injuries or even deaths caused by vehicles not stopping or giving way to pedestrians. Minister of Transportation and Communications Lin Chia-lung said that the MOTC hopes to make traffic more human-oriented, and cars and motorcycles should give way to pedestrians at intersections. It has long been said that vehicles should “politely“ give way to pedestrians, but in fact vehicles should always stop to let pedestrians go first unless there is a “no pedestrians“ sign.



行人走在行人穿越道上擁有絕對通行權,但車輛因未停讓行人導致的傷亡事故仍時有耳聞。交通部長林佳龍表示,交通部希望落實人本交通,所以在路口汽機車應當禮讓行人;過去都是說「禮讓」,但事實上依法規範的話,如果沒有禁止行人標誌,就應該優先停讓。



Lin asked for the reform to start from the three aspects of “people, vehicles and roads” by enforcing the law that demands yielding to pedestrians at intersections, reviewing road design specifications, and planning to increase penalties, so as to increase drivers’ awareness of the need to give way to pedestrians.



林佳龍要求從人、車、路三方項著手,推動路口停讓行人大執法、檢討道路設計規範、規劃加重處罰等方式,來提醒車輛要停讓行人。



Regarding the increase in fines, the amendment refers to the laws of the US, Japan, France and South Korea. Drivers who do not allow pedestrians to pass first will be fined NT$1,200 to NT$6,000, increased from the current NT$1,200 to NT$3,600. Those who cause injury or death will bear both civil and criminal liability as well as facing a fine of NT$7,200 to NT$36,000.



在提高罰鍰方面,參考美日法韓法規,未停讓行人先行通過者,罰鍰從現行一千兩百元至三千六百元,提高為一千兩百元至六千元;因而致人受傷或死亡者,除民刑事責任外,還可處七千兩百元至三萬六千元。



Having been passed at the MOTC review board meeting, the draft amendments will now be transferred to the Legislative Yuan for review.



「道路交通管理處罰條例」修正草案在交通部務會報上通過後,將報行政院續轉立法院審議。



Source article: https://www.taipeitimes.com/News/lang/archives/2021/02/08/2003751951



 



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每日英語跟讀 Ep.K051: 反「用完即丟」 美加快推「維修權」
公開日時: 2021-02-15 18:26:17

每日英語跟讀 Ep.K051: The ‘Right to Repair’ Movement Gains Ground



 



If you buy a product — a car, a smartphone, or even a tractor — and it breaks, should it be easier for you to fix it yourself?



如果你買了一個產品,例如一輛汽車、一部智慧型手機,甚至是一台拖拉機,結果它壞了,是不是應該讓你自己修理起來更容易些呢?



Manufacturers of a wide range of products have made it increasingly difficult over the years to repair things, for instance by limiting availability of parts or by putting prohibitions on who gets to tinker with them. It affects not only game consoles or farm equipment, but cellphones, military gear, refrigerators, automobiles and even hospital ventilators, the lifesaving devices that have proved crucial this year in fighting the COVID-19 pandemic.



多年來,許多種產品的製造商都讓維修變得愈來愈困難,比如限制零件的取得,或對何人有權動手維修施加限制。受影響的產品不止於遊戲主機或農用機具,還有手機、軍用設備、冰箱、汽車,甚至包括今年對抗新冠病毒疫情發揮關鍵作用的救生設備—醫院裡的呼吸器。



Now, a movement known as “right to repair” is starting to make progress in pushing for laws that prohibit restrictions like these.



現在,一項名為「維修權」的運動在推動禁止此類限制的立法上,正取得進展。



In August, Democrats introduced a bill in Congress to block manufacturers’ limits on medical devices, spurred by the pandemic. In Europe, the European Commission announced plans in March for new right-to-repair rules that would cover phones, tablets and laptops by 2021.



今年8月,美國民主黨因防疫需要而在國會提出一項法案,旨在阻止製造商對醫療裝置設下限制。在歐洲,歐盟執行委員會3月宣布了新的維修權規定計畫,在2021年以前實施,涵蓋手機、平板電腦和筆記型電腦。



And in more than 20 statehouses nationwide, right-to-repair legislation has been introduced in recent years by both Republicans and Democrats.



近年來,在全美國20多個州的議會裡,共和黨和民主黨都提出了維修權法案。



Over the summer, the House advanced a funding bill that includes a requirement that the Federal Trade Commission complete a report on anti-competitive practices in the repair market and present its findings to Congress and the public.



今年夏天,眾議院推動了一項資助法案,其中責成聯邦貿易委員會做成一份關於維修市場反競爭行為的報告,並向國會和民眾提交調查結果。



The goal of right-to-repair rules, advocates say, is to require companies to make their parts, tools and information available to consumers and repair shops in order to keep devices from ending up in the scrap heap. They argue that the rules restrict people’s use of devices that they own and encourage a throwaway culture by making repairs too difficult.



倡議人士表示,維修權規定的目的是要求企業向消費者和維修商家提供零組件、工具及資訊,以免這些裝置最終被扔進垃圾堆。他們主張,目前的慣例對人們使用自己的裝置設下限制,並透過讓維修變得太過困難的方式,助長了一種用完即丟的文化。



They also argue that it’s part of a culture of planned obsolescence — the idea that products are designed to be short-lived in order to encourage people to buy more stuff. That contributes to wasted natural resources and energy use at a time when climate change requires movement in the opposite direction to rein in planet-warming emissions.



他們還認為,這是一種計畫性淘汰文化的一部分,即為了鼓勵人們購買更多東西,產品被設計成短命的。在氣候變遷需要採取反向行動來控制溫室氣體排放的此際,這助長了自然資源的浪費以及能源的使用。



Manufacturing a new device or appliance is still largely reliant on polluting sources of energy — electricity generated from burning fossil fuels, for instance — and constitutes the largest environmental impact for most products.



製造一種新設備或裝置在很大程度上,仍仰賴會造成汙染的能源,例如燃燒化石燃料產生的電力,對大多數產品而言,這正是構成最大環境影響的因素。



Source article: https://udn.com/news/story/6904/5015841



 



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回顧星期天LBS - 加拿大時事趣聞 All about Canada
公開日時: 2021-02-14 01:03:00


Hello 通勤家族,歡迎收聽Look Back Sunday回顧星期天,在這個節目John老師會彙整過去不同國家與主題的熱門跟讀文章,讓你可以在十五分鐘內吸收最精華的世界時事趣聞!我們這週聽聽加拿大的趣聞,Let's get right to it!





Topic: Calgary Zoo returning pandas to China due to bamboo barriers



 





The Calgary Zoo will be returning two giant pandas on loan from China because a scarcity of flights due to COVID-19 has caused problems with getting enough bamboo to feed them. Er Shun and Da Mao arrived in Canada in 2014 as part of a 10-year agreement between Canada and China. After spending five years at the Toronto Zoo, the two adult giant pandas arrived at the Calgary Zoo in March 2018 with cubs Jia Panpan and Jia Yueyue.





加拿大卡加利動物園將歸還從中國借來的兩隻貓熊,因為武漢肺炎所造成的航班稀缺,沒辦法運來足夠的竹子來餵養貓熊。加拿大和中國簽署了一份為期十年的協議,貓熊二順與大毛便在二?一四來到了加拿大。牠們在多倫多動物園待了五年,後來這兩隻貓熊和牠們所生的小貓熊加盼盼和加悅悅一起到了卡加利動物園。





The zoo’s president, Clement Lanthier, said last week the facility spent months trying to overcome transportation barriers in acquiring fresh bamboo and decided it’s best for the animals to be in China, where their main food source is abundant.





卡加利動物園園長克萊蒙‧蘭提耶上週表示,園方花了數月的時間嘗試解決新鮮竹子的運補問題,後來做出結論——對這些貓熊來說,待在中國是最好的,因為在中國,牠們有充裕的主食來源。





“It’s about the animals. At the end of the day, we cannot pretend that we care for animals if we don’t take those tough decisions,” Lanthier said. “We believe the best and safest place for Er Shun and Da Mao to be during these challenging and unprecedented times is where bamboo is abundant and easy to access.” Lanthier said the zoo had contingency plans for a steady supply of fresh bamboo, but limits on flights from China was the first problem. Transporting more from California added even more frustrations. “Every week, every 10 days there is more and more problem moving bamboo to Calgary. This risk is unacceptable. We don’t feel comfortable at all that we can impose that risk on the health and the welfare of the pandas.” According to Lanthier, the animals didn’t like some kinds of bamboo and other supplies that arrived were past their expiry point.





「這是為了動物著想。畢竟,我們如果不做出這艱難的決定,就不能假裝我們是愛護動物的」,蘭提耶說。「我們相信,在這充滿挑戰及不可預見情況的時期,對二順和大毛來說最理想、最安全的地方,就是竹子充裕且容易取得的地方」。蘭提耶表示,卡加利動物園有確保新鮮竹子穩定供應的應變計畫,但第一個問題是,來自中國的航班受到限縮。從加州運多些竹子來,就更令人挫折。「每過一週、十天,運竹子到卡加利所要面臨的問題就越來越多。這種風險是無法接受的。我們一點都不願意給貓熊的健康與福祉帶來這種風險」。蘭提耶說,貓熊不喜歡吃某些品種的竹子,以及運達時已過期的其他補給品。





Giant pandas have unique nutritional requirements and 99 percent of their diet is made up of fresh bamboo. Each adult consumes about 40kg daily. Lanthier said the news came as a bit of a shock to the Chinese government. In other locations where pandas are exhibited — such as France, Spain and parts of Asia — bamboo can be grown locally.





貓熊有獨特的營養需求,新鮮竹子佔了貓熊飲食的百分之九十九。每隻成年貓熊每天要吃大約四十公斤的竹子。蘭提耶說,決定送還貓熊的消息令中國政府感到震驚。在其他展示貓熊的地方——例如法國、西班牙和一些亞洲地區——當地都可以種植竹子。





He said the pandas had been one of the biggest draws at the Calgary Zoo, but the decision wasn’t one about business. “It’s based on animal welfare. I cannot imagine if one day, two days, three days in a row I am unable to provide the bamboo. That would be catastrophic.” There’s no date for when the pandas will return home. Lanthier doesn’t want the Canadian and Chinese governments to delay things. “We need the federal government and the Chinese government to expedite the permit process, so we can move them back to where this risk of not getting their next meal will be managed differently,” he said.





他說,貓熊是卡加利動物園吸引遊客的最大賣點之一,但送還貓熊這個決定跟生意無關。「這是基於動物的福利。我不能想像如果連續一天、兩天、三天無法提供竹子。那會很悲慘」。貓熊送回中國的日期尚未確定。蘭提耶不希望加拿大和中國政府拖延此事。他說:「我們需要聯邦政府和中國政府加快許可證辦理程序,以便我們將貓熊運送到不用擔心下一餐沒著落的地方」。





Source article: https://www.taipeitimes.com/News/lang/archives/2020/05/19/2003736635




 




Next Article




 




Topic: Justin Trudeau’s Official Home: Unfit for a Leader or Anyone Else




 




At Canada’s official residence for its prime minister, security cameras keep silent watch over the fences, visitors pass through gates that can block truck bombs and a detail of uniformed Royal Canadian Mounted Police officers patrol day and night.





在加拿大總理官邸,監視器靜靜盯著圍籬,遊客從能阻擋卡車炸彈的大門前經過,一隊穿制服的加拿大皇家騎警日夜巡邏。





But the prime minister himself is unlikely to be found inside.但總理本人不太可能在裡面。





When Justin Trudeau became prime minister three years ago, he took a pass on moving his family into the official residence at 24 Sussex Drive, built in 1868 by an American-born lumber baron. Decades of neglect had turned Canada’s top political address into its most famous home renovation project.





這座官邸1868年由一名在美國出生的木材大亨建造,位於(渥太華市)薩塞克斯街24號,杜魯多三年前當上總理時拒絕全家遷入。加拿大最高階政治人物的居所由於數十年疏於維護,變成了最受矚目的住家修繕案。





But no recent prime ministers have been willing to commit the tens of millions of dollars it would take to make the stone house habitable again. It would look as if they were spending money on themselves, a politically toxic step in Canada.





不過,最近幾位總理沒有一位願意投入預計需要的數千萬美元,讓這座石頭宅邸再次適合住人。那看起來會像把公帑花在自己身上,在加拿大勢必惹來政治風波。





Trudeau, 46, who lived at 24 Sussex as a child when his father was prime minister, is no exception.現46歲的杜魯多也不例外。他幼年父親當總理時住過薩塞克斯街24號。





“No prime minister wants to spend a penny of taxpayer dollars on upkeeping that house,” Trudeau told the Canadian Broadcasting Corp. earlier this year.杜魯多今年稍早對加拿大廣播公司說:「沒有一位總理會為了修理那棟房子,花掉納稅人任何一分錢。」





There was little criticism of Trudeau’s decision to live with his wife and their three children in Rideau Cottage, a relatively modest, two-story red brick house behind Rideau Hall, the house of Canada’s governor general who fulfills Queen Elizabeth II’s duties as head of state.杜魯多與妻子和三個孩子住在麗都別墅,這是一幢相對平實的兩層樓紅磚建築,坐落在加拿大總督府後方。加拿大總督代表英國女王伊麗莎白二世行使國家元首的職權。杜魯多的決定幾乎無人批評。





That is because the official residence’s deteriorating condition is no secret to Canadians, with government reports documenting its decline for more than a decade.這是因為總理官邸破敗對加拿大人並不是秘密,十幾年來政府報告詳細記錄了官邸的衰敗。





Those reports make grim reading for anyone but a contractor hoping to land the renovation job.報告內容對任何人來說都不是好消息,除了想接整修工程的包商以外。





“The building systems at 24 Sussex have reached the point of imminent or actual failure,” one report, by the National Capital Commission, the federal agency that manages official residences, found this year. It rated the residence’s condition as “critical.”負責管理官邸的聯邦機構「國家首府委員會」今年在報告中指出:「薩塞克斯街24號的建築體系即將或已經崩壞。」報告將官邸的情形評定為「危險級」。





Its wiring, according to the report, has become a fire hazard; the boiler is obsolete; the exterior stonework is crumbling; and the plumbing blocks up regularly.報告顯示,官邸的線路系統有走火之虞,供應暖氣和熱水的鍋爐老舊過時,外牆石造部分正在崩解剝落,而且水管經常阻塞。





The building by a pool added by Trudeau’s father is “rotting,” the report said, and air-conditioning comes from inefficient window units that could make it easy for intruders to slip in. Many of those windows need replacement anyway. Everywhere there is asbestos.報告說,這座杜魯多父親在旁邊新添一個水池的建物正在「腐壞」,而且空氣調節仰賴效率低的窗型冷氣,讓人很容易溜進去。許多裝了窗型冷氣的窗戶都該換了。到處都有石棉。





On top of all that, the house is ill-suited for official functions. Among the house’s many deficiencies, “the dining room is at the same time too large for a family and too small for state dinners,” the report said.更重要的是,這間房子不適合官式活動。報告說,這房子有諸多缺點,包括「餐廳對一個家庭來說太大,辦國宴卻太小」。





The current cost estimate to deal with everything (excluding security upgrades): 38 million Canadian dollars ($28.7 million).目前估計,解決所有問題但不包括安全設備升級的費用是3800萬加拿大元(2870萬美元,約台幣8.6億元)。





Source article: https://paper.udn.com/udnpaper/POH0067/334262/web/




 




Next Article



 





Topic: Canadian doctors - cancel our pay rise and spend money elsewhere 加拿大醫師:取消我們的加薪,把錢花在別的地方



 





Nearly 800 doctors and medical residents in the Canadian province of Quebec have signed a letter protesting against plans to raise their pay, arguing that the funds would be better spent on other areas of the province’s beleaguered healthcare system.





加拿大魁北克省近800名醫師與住院醫師,連署一份抗議計畫為其加薪的函文,主張錢花在該省困窘的醫療系統會更好。





"We, Quebec doctors, are asking that the salary increases granted to physicians be cancelled and that the resources of the system be better distributed for the good of healthcare workers.’’





「我們,魁北克的醫師,要求取消給予醫師的加薪,並更恰當地分配該體系資源,以裨益醫療工作人員。」





It was drafted late last month by Médecins québécois pour le régime public, a group of doctors and medical students who support public healthcare.





這份函文是由支持公共醫療的醫師與醫學生組成的「魁北克公立醫院醫生組織」,於上個月下旬所擬定的。





The letter says recent pay raises negotiated by their professional associations as "shocking", given the "draconian cuts" that have left nurses, orderlies and others overworked and underpaid, as well as led to a widespread lack of services for patients.





函文表示,鑑於護理人員、勤務員以及其他過勞低薪的工作人員承受的「嚴酷的(經費)削減」,與所導致對病患的普遍服務不足,他們的專業公會近期協商達成的加薪「令人感到震驚」。





The Quebec government recently announced increases of 1.4% and around 1.8% for specialists and general practitioners respectively, while recent data suggests that the average specialist in Quebec makes C$403,500 annually, while family physicians make C$255,000.





魁北克政府最近宣布,專科醫師與一般科醫師分別加薪1.4%與約1.8%,而近期資料顯示,魁北克專科醫師平均年收入為40萬3500加幣,家醫科醫師則為25萬5000加幣。




Source article: http://iservice.ltn.com.tw/Service/english/english.php?engno=1185672&day=2018-03-21




 



通勤學英語15mins.Today榮獲




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精選詞彙播客 Vocab Ep.093: 蘇格蘭政策女士優先Scotland's landmark policy
公開日時: 2021-02-13 01:38:00


Summary:





Scotland became the first country to allow free and universal access to menstrual products in public facilities. It is the movement against period poverty. Period poverty is a global issue affecting women and girls who don’t have access to safe, hygienic sanitary products, and/or who are unable to manage their periods with dignity, sometimes due to community stigma and sanction.





原跟讀文章: https://www.15mins.today/blog/ep-1010-about-uk-scotland-is-making-tampons-and-pads-free




 




Vocabulary and Sample Sentences





Unanimously adv. – two or more people in full agreement



  • The Scottish Parliament voted unanimously in favor of the Period Products bill.


  • The team unanimously agreed to have the year-end party at Macdonald’s.





Access n. v.– means of entering or approaching a place;



  • Universal health care grants everybody a right to access healthcare services.


  • You would need an access card to enter the building.




Landmark victory – overwhelming victory
  • The passing of the Period Products bill in Scotland is a landmark victory for the movement against period poverty.


  • It was a landmark victory for the sales team in 2020.





通勤學英語15mins.Today榮獲



  • Apple Podcast 2020年十大熱門節目


  • KKBox 2020年十大Podcast風雲榜 (唯一語言學習Podcast)


  • Himalaya 人氣票選播客總冠軍









 







每日英語跟讀Podcast,就在http://www.15mins.today/daily-shadowing
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每日英語跟讀 Ep.K050: About Canada - 加拿大人考慮是否該到佛州過冬
公開日時: 2021-02-12 01:04:00

每日英語跟讀 Ep.K050: About Canada - Fly south or roost? Canadian ’snowbirds’ weigh Florida mid-pandemic
 









Birds of a feather normally flock together, but the pandemic has divided Canada’s "snowbird" warm weather migrants into two camps:those staying home this winter and those heading to Florida no matter the cost.



















通常來說,物以類聚,但是這場疫情已經使加拿大每年遷徙到氣候溫暖區的「雪鳥族」分成兩陣營:待在家鄉過冬,以及不計代價前往佛州者。























Nearly a million Canadians make the annual pilgrimage, fleeing to the southern United States to pass what would otherwise be gray and snowy months with their toes tucked in the sand and ocean breeze in their hair.























每年有將近100萬名加拿大人飛奔到美國南方,享受漫步沙灘、和煦海風吹過髮梢,度過在家鄉會是滿是灰白雪世界的幾個月。























The coronavirus has led a majority to forgo the trip this year - but for those flouting Canada’s repeated calls to stay put, the price tag on winter at the beach has skyrocketed.























新型冠狀病毒導致今年大多數人放棄這趟旅程,但是對那些不顧加拿大一再呼籲不要旅行的人來說,到南方沙灘過冬的代價飛漲。























Each plane ticket costs Can$500 and hauling the vehicle 55 miles across the border sets customers back $1,000.























每張機票要500加幣,把車子運送55英里越過邊境,則要花上1000加幣。



 























Next Article




















 








Canadian officials warn drivers not to let moose lick their cars 加拿大官員警告駕駛 不要讓駝鹿舔他們的車











Officials in Jasper, an alpine town in Canada’s Alberta province, have put up signs asking motorists to avoid allowing moose to lick the salt off their cars.























加拿大亞伯達省高山小鎮賈斯柏的官員們,已經張貼標語要求駕駛人不得允許駝鹿舔他們車外的鹽。























"They’re obsessed with salt, it’s one of the things they need for the minerals in their body," Jasper National Park spokesman Steve Young told CNN. "They usually get it from salt lakes in the park, but now they realized they can also get road salt that splashes onto cars."























「他們癡迷於鹽,鹽是其中一種牠們身體必需的礦物質」,賈斯柏國家公園發言人史蒂夫.楊告訴美國有線電視新聞網,「他們通常會從公園的湖鹽獲取它(礦物質),但現在他們知道,他們也能從濺在車上的路鹽得到」。























At the Jasper National Park, where people often park on the side of the road in hopes of catching a glimpse of the moose, letting the animals near your car is actually a serious danger.























賈斯柏國家公園內時常有人停車在路邊,希望能得到駝鹿的注意,但讓動物接近你的車,其實是非常危險的。























By allowing moose to lick the salt off your car, they will become habituated with being around cars. That poses a risk to both the animals and the drivers who can accidentally crash into them.























允許駝鹿舔你的車外的鹽,將會讓牠們習慣徘徊於車子旁邊。對動物及可能意外與牠們相撞的駕駛人都構成風險。























Source article: https://features.ltn.com.tw/english/article/paper/1422097























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恭喜發財新年快樂特輯Lunar New Year Special
公開日時: 2021-02-11 12:28:00

Dear 15mins fam 通勤家族,












牛年春節到了,John老師與老師群們借這次機會祝大家新年快樂,金牛迎春,牛轉錢坤!Wish you a happy and prosperous lunar new year!
 


















趁這個機會跟大家分享難得的成就,就在2021年新春前,通勤學英語也突破了一千萬總下載。透過每日十五分鐘持續累績英語力的旅程中,你的學習與努力是有目共睹的!持續的給自己沈浸在聽英語,說英語環境下,這個能力一定會變成你人生中的super power!
 


















再來要歡迎的是我們香港與新加坡的通勤家族!通勤學英語也在Spotify香港與新加坡排行榜上漸漸攀升中。感謝你的支持!也歡迎在你的podcast收聽平台 (Apple Podcast, Spotify, Google Podcast, Himalaya等) 給通勤學英語Podcast五星評論、留言鼓勵、或email來信。
 


















還有新加入的通勤家族是我們Mixerbox (MB3 app)的粉絲們!在Mixerbox平台開啟留言功能後,John老師一直很努力的follow大家的留言,也很努力的一個個回。歡迎Mixerbox fans加入通勤家族的行列,開啟你每日十五分鐘提升英語力的旅程。
 


















最後,我們創立了一個粉絲信箱(ask15mins@gmail.com),歡迎通勤家族來信問有關英語學習以及英語應用相關的問題。老師群們日後會挑些實用的問題,在週末時段的podcast替大家解答。


















這個新年,祝大家 - Gong Xi Fa Chai,恭喜發財,Happy Lunar New Year!


















 
by John & 15mins Team








每日英語跟讀 Ep.K049: 超大型風力發電機試圖顛覆風電業
公開日時: 2021-02-11 01:03:00











每日英語跟讀 Ep.K049: A Monster Wind Turbine Is Upending an Industry























Twirling above a strip of land at the mouth of Rotterdam’s harbor is a wind turbine so large it is difficult to photograph. The turning diameter of its rotor is longer than two American football fields end to end. Later models will be taller than any building on the mainland of Western Europe.























鹿特丹港口一處狹長土地上,有座風力發電機在轉動,規模大到難以近距離拍攝,葉片旋轉直徑比兩座美式足球場接起來還長,日後更新版的風機將比西歐大陸上任何建物都高。























Packed with sensors gathering data on wind speeds, electricity output and stresses on its components, the giant whirling machine in the Netherlands is a test model for a new series of giant offshore wind turbines planned by General Electric. When assembled in arrays, the wind machines have the potential to power cities, supplanting the emissions-spewing coal- or natural gas-fired plants that form the backbones of many electric systems today.























這個位於荷蘭的巨型旋轉機器,是奇異公司所規畫新系列巨型離岸風機的測試模型,配備了收集風速、電力輸出及各零件所受應力數據的感應器。這些風機若以陣列布建,具備為城市供電的潛力,取代大量排放廢氣、組成當今許多發電系統骨幹的燃煤或燃氣發電廠。























GE has yet to install one of these machines in ocean water. As a relative newcomer to the offshore wind business, the company faces questions about how quickly and efficiently it can scale up production to build and install hundreds of the turbines.























奇異公司尚未在海上安裝此類機器。奇異在離岸風電業堪稱新兵,面臨的問題是,能多快、多有效地擴大生產規模,以建造並安裝數百座風機。























But already the giant turbines have turned heads in the industry. A top executive at the world’s leading wind farm developer called it a “bit of a leapfrog over the latest technology.” And an analyst said the machine’s size and advance sales had “shaken the industry.”























然而這種巨型風機已在業界引起轟動。全球頂尖風場開發商的一位高管稱其為「超越最新技術的一次飛躍」。一位分析師表示,這款機器的尺寸與預售量「撼動了整個產業」。























The prototype is the first of a generation of new machines that are about a third more powerful than the largest already in commercial service. As such, it is changing the business calculations of wind equipment makers, developers and investors.























這是新世代風機的第一個原型機,新世代風機功能比已在商業運轉的最大風機還要強三分之一左右。因此,它正在改變風力設備製造商、開發商與投資人的盤算。























The GE machines will have a generating capacity that would have been almost unimaginable a decade ago. A single one will be able to turn out 13 megawatts of power, enough to light up a town of roughly 12,000 homes.























奇異的風機將具有十年前幾乎無法想像的發電能力,一座就能產生13百萬瓦電力,足夠點亮約有1.2萬戶家庭的小鎮。























The turbine is capable of producing as much thrust as the four engines of a Boeing 747 jet, according to GE, and will be deployed at sea, where developers have learned that they can plant larger and more numerous turbines than on land to capture breezes that are stronger and more reliable.























奇異表示,這種風機能產生相當於波音747飛機四具引擎的推力,將部署在海上,開發商已經知道在海上能安裝比陸上更大也更多的風機,以捕捉更強也更可靠的風。























The race to build bigger turbines has moved faster than many industry figures foresaw. GE’s Haliade-X generates almost 30 times more electricity than the first offshore machines installed off Denmark in 1991.























建造更大風機的競賽步調比許多業內人士預測的要快。奇異的Haliade-X風機,發電量幾乎是1991年安裝於丹麥近海的第一座離岸風機的30倍。























In coming years, customers are likely to demand even bigger machines, industry executives say. On the other hand, they predict that turbines will reach a point at which greater size no longer makes economic sense.























業界高層表示,未來幾年顧客很可能要求更大的機器。另一方面,他們預測,風機遲早會來到再大就不合經濟效益的時刻。























Source article: https://udn.com/news/story/6904/5180307























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每日英語跟讀 Ep.K048: 英國醫院區塊鏈技術運送疫苗
公開日時: 2021-02-10 01:03:00

每日英語跟讀 Ep.K048: British hospitals use blockchain to track COVID-19 vaccines



Two British hospitals are using blockchain technology to keep tabs on the storage and supply of temperature-sensitive COVID-19 vaccines, the companies behind the initiative said on Tuesday, in one of the first such initiatives in the world.



英國有兩家醫院正以區塊鏈技術來監控武漢肺炎(新型冠狀病毒病,COVID-19)疫苗儲存與供應的動態,這些疫苗對溫度極其敏感。負責該計畫的公司上週二表示,這是此新做法的全球首例之一。



Two hospitals, in central England’s Stratford-upon-Avon and Warwick, are expanding their use of a distributed ledger, an offshoot of blockchain, from tracking vaccines and chemotherapy drugs to monitoring fridges storing COVID-19 vaccines.













這兩家分別位於英格蘭中部埃文河畔史特拉福及華威的醫院,將分散式帳本(區塊鏈的一種)技術的應用範圍擴大,從追蹤疫苗及化療藥物之動向,到監視儲存武漢肺炎疫苗的冰箱。























The technology will bolster record-keeping and data-sharing across supply chains, said Everyware, which monitors vaccines and other treatments for Britain’s National Health Service.























Everyware發布聲明表示,這項技術將加強整個供應鏈的紀錄保存與數據共享。Everyware為英國國民保健署監控疫苗及其它藥物之動向。























Logistical hurdles are a significant risk to the speedy distribution of COVID-19 vaccines, but have resulted in booming business for companies selling technology for monitoring shipments from factory freezer to shots in the arm.























物流的障礙對快速配送武漢肺炎疫苗構成了威脅,但提供監控技術的公司卻因此大發利市──它們監控疫苗的運送,從藥廠冷凍庫開始,直到注射入手臂。























Pfizer Inc and BioNTech’s shot, for example, must be shipped and stored at ultra-cold temperatures or on dry ice, and can only last for up to five days at standard fridge temperatures. Other vaccines, such as Moderna Inc’s, do not need such cold storage and are therefore easier to deliver.























舉例來說,輝瑞公司及德國生物新技術公司所生產的疫苗,其運輸和儲存都必須處於超冷溫度或置於乾冰上,而且在標準冰箱溫度下最多只能保存五天。其他疫苗,例如莫德納公司所生產的疫苗,則不需要這樣的冷藏,因此更易於運送。























Firms from finance to commodities have invested millions of dollars to develop blockchain, a digital ledger that allows secure and real-time recording of data, in the hope of radical cost cuts and efficiency gains.























從金融公司到日用品公司,有許企業已投資數百萬美元來發展區塊鏈。區塊鏈是一種數位帳本,可以安全、即時地記錄數據,以期大幅度削減成本並提高效率。























Blockchain originated from Bitcoin, and it was created for the sake of Bitcoin — Bitcoin being blockchain’s first application. A blockchain is a growing list of records, called blocks, that are linked using cryptography. Each block contains a cryptographic hash of the previous block, a timestamp and transaction data. By design, a blockchain is resistant to modification of its data.























區塊鏈的起源為「比特幣」,為了比特幣而產生了區塊鏈──比特幣為區塊鏈的第一個應用。區塊鏈為以密碼學串接並保護內容的串連文字紀錄(又稱區塊)。每一個區塊包含了前一個區塊的加密雜湊、相應時間戳記以及交易資料,這樣的設計使得區塊內容具有難以篡改的特性。























Source article: https://www.taipeitimes.com/News/lang/archives/2021/01/25/2003751156




















 



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每日英語跟讀 Ep.K047: 經典偵探小說 「東方快車謀殺案」的重拍
公開日時: 2021-02-09 01:05:00

每日英語跟讀 Ep.K047: A Fresh Take on a 1934 ‘Murder’



A gruesome murder has been committed on a train in the middle of the night. Only 13 occupants of the carriage could have committed the dastardly deed. Was it a) the Russian princess; b) the American widow; c) the English governess; or d) the Hungarian count? Or any of the nine other multinational posh people and their servants rubbing shoulders on the luxury locomotive, snowbound in the middle of Eastern Europe, with a brilliant Belgian detective inconveniently in their midst?













一宗可怕的謀殺案在夜半的火車上發生。只有13名旅客可能犯下這惡行。是a)俄羅斯公主;b)美國寡婦;c)英國女家教;或d)匈牙利伯爵呢?抑或是其他9位來自各國的紳士淑女和他們的僕人,眾人在受困東歐中部大雪的豪華火車車廂裡摩肩擦踵,這其中還碰巧有個厲害的比利時偵探?























Chances are this sounds familiar. It’s the setup for one of the most famous detective stories in the world: Agatha Christie’s 1934 novel “Murder on the Orient Express,” which has sold millions of copies. It was made into a sumptuous 1974 movie, directed by Sidney Lumet with the starriest of casts (Lauren Bacall, Sean Connery, Ingrid Bergman!). It has been adapted for television, stage and radio. There is a Japanese television version and a computer game.























這聽起來或許耳熟能詳。這是全球最著名偵探小說之一的場景:阿嘉莎.克莉絲蒂1934年的小說「東方快車謀殺案」,銷售數以百萬本計。導演薛尼·盧梅1974年翻拍成豪華版電影,有最耀眼的明星陣容(洛琳·白考兒、史恩·康納萊、英格麗·褒曼!),另並改編成電視劇、舞台劇和廣播劇,且有日本電視劇版本和一款電玩遊戲。























All this meant that Kenneth Branagh, the director and star of the new film version, which opened in the United States on Friday with the starriest of casts (Johnny Depp, Michelle Pfeiffer, Penélope Cruz, Judi Dench!), had his own mystery to solve. How do you reinvent one of the world’s best-loved whodunits for a new era? Branagh’s solution was to modify, and sometimes entirely change, character and plot details in ways that may dismay purists but that he felt would give the piece a more contemporary resonance.























這意味最新版本電影的導演兼主角肯尼斯·布萊納必須拿出一套解開謎團的獨到功夫,新片11月11日在美國上映,仍然有最耀眼的卡司(強尼·戴普、蜜雪兒·菲佛、潘妮洛普·克魯茲、茱蒂·丹契!)你要如何在新的世代詮釋最受世人喜愛的偵探小說呢?布萊納的方法是把角色與劇情細節進行修飾,時而甚至完全予以改變,這麼做或許會令純粹主義者沮喪,他卻覺得更能讓作品引起當代人的共鳴。























“There is always the thorny issue of who will know the plot and how can we divert them,” Branagh said in a telephone interview. “We knew we had to get people’s attention for a recalibrated character in Poirot,” Christie’s idiosyncratic Belgian detective.























布萊納接受電話訪問時說:「總會碰到有些人已經知道劇情,你該如何轉移他們的注意力,讓他們覺得有趣的棘手問題。我們知道,我們必須吸引人們注意經過修改的角色白羅(克莉絲蒂創造的怪異的比利時偵探)。」























To that end, Branagh and the scriptwriter, Michael Green, begin the movie with a showdown at the Western Wall in Jerusalem, as the detective solves another mystery. “I wanted to embrace the exotic and worldly side of Christie, to come into the big, hot open skies and find a new Poirot, our ticket for an exotic adventure,” Branagh said.























為達此目的,布萊納與編劇麥可·格林以偵探在耶路撒冷西牆解開一個對決謎團的方式,揭開電影序幕。布萊納說:「我想擁抱克莉絲蒂奇異與入世的一面,進入那既大又熱的開放天空,找到一個新的白羅,這是我們奇異冒險的門票。」























With an opening that has Poirot tripping up an escaping villain in a positively James Bond-esque manner, Branagh immediately established the detective as a far more dashing man of action than the novel’s small hero “muffled up to the ears of whom nothing was visible but a pink-tipped nose and the two points of an upward curled mustache.”























這個開場讓白羅以絕對詹姆士·龐德的方式逼逃犯露出馬腳,布萊納也立刻將這位偵探塑造成遠比原著中小號英雄瀟灑的行動派男子漢;原著中的小號英雄「衣服直蓋到耳朵,除了一個粉紅鼻子,以及上捲的兩綹髭鬚,什麼都看不見」。























Source article: https://paper.udn.com/udnpaper/POH0067/320990/web/




















 



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每日英語跟讀 Ep.K046: 寒害重創雲林虱目魚凍死傷逾十九萬尾
公開日時: 2021-02-08 01:04:00

每日英語跟讀 Ep.K046: Cold snap devastates fish farms in Yunlin County



Despite the temperature rising to a high of 23 degrees Celsius on Jan. 3, the cold snap continues to inflict heavy losses on Yunlin County’s milkfish farming industry. As of Jan. 3, the bitter weather had frozen to death or inflicted frostbite on more than 190,000 milkfish on the county’s fish farms, which accounts for 50 percent of the farms’ milkfish population.



雲林縣一月三日氣溫回升,高溫來到二十三度,但這波寒流仍重創養殖虱目魚,截至三日凍斃、凍傷已逾十九萬尾,超過養殖總數五成。



Yunlin County Agriculture Department Deputy Director Tsai Keng-yu said that, as of 4pm on Jan. 3, cold-damage data provided by the relevant public bodies showed that Taisi Township was the worst affected, with 700 hectares of farm affected and 140,000 fish dead or injured, or approximately 60 percent of fish population lost. About 300 hectares of fish farms in Sihhu, Kouhu and Mailiao townships had been damaged, which equates to about 50,000 fish, or 30 percent of the local farms’ fish stocks. The entire county had lost 190,000 fish, but the death toll could rise further as some fish farmers had not yet finished dredging their ponds.













雲林縣府農業處副處長蔡耿宇表示,根據各公所三日下午四點為止回報寒害統計,台西鄉受害最嚴重、約有七百公頃,凍死傷約十四萬尾,損失逾六成;四湖、口湖與麥寮三鄉受害面積約三百公頃,約有五萬尾,損害約三成多,總計全縣已超過十九萬尾,由於部分業者還未打撈完畢,災情可能還會增加。























A fish farmer surnamed Ting from Taisi Township said he was breeding approximately 1,500 milkfish on his fish farm and had been raising them for over one year. Ting said the cold snap had almost completely wiped out his fish. Furthermore, because milkfish are “working fish” reared within a clam pond polyculture, and are therefore not the fish farms’ primary breed species, it will be difficult to quantify the extent of the losses. However, what is certain is that without the assistance of the milkfish chomping through algae and other surface growth, farm owners would have to regularly carry out manual dredging of their ponds. As well as significantly increasing their workload, this could also result in a reduction of the water quality, which might kill the clams and cause more than NT$1 million in losses.























台西鄉丁姓養殖業者說,他的養殖魚塭養了約一千五百多尾虱目魚,已經養超過一年,這波寒流幾乎全軍覆沒。由於虱目魚是文蛤池混養的工作魚,並非主要養殖物,很難說損失多少,但少了虱目魚協助吃食塭池藻類苔鮮,業者必須常常下魚塭撈藻類,增加不少工作量,也可能造成水質變壞文蛤死亡,屆時損失將超過百萬元。























Another fish farmer, surnamed Yao, said that he had turned his fish pond’s waterwheel up to full speed during the cold weather, which, in addition to groundwater percolation, meant that only a little over 100 of his fish perished. However, Yao said that those fish lucky enough to survive were a ghost of their former selves, exhibiting much-reduced energy levels. “If we get another cold snap, they might not be able to survive. All I can do is wait and pray,” said Yao.























姚姓養殖業者說,這波寒流他魚塭水車全開,加上引灌地下水,只有死掉一百多尾,但僥倖逃過寒害的魚,活動力已大不如前,若再有寒流低溫,恐怕熬不過,只能「挫咧等」。























Source article: https://www.taipeitimes.com/News/lang/archives/2021/01/10/2003750262










 








 

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